Menstrual Cycle



What is Menstrual Cycle?

The terms “menstruation” and “menses” are derived from the Latin menses that is known as month. The word menstruation is related to moon etymologically and it related to the Greek mene (moon) and to the roots of the English words that is moon and month. Latest study found that menstrual has no connectivity with lunar cycle.

Menstrual cycle commonly known as female periods/ female menstrual cycle, which happen almost seven days a month, Length of periods varies from girl to girl.  It is also known as menses, catamenia, menstrual bleeding etc. the flow of bleeding during period is considered that a woman has not become pregnant.

Normal length of Menstrual Cycle

Normal periods are considered about seven day cycle in a month. Some time women got problems in their periods and got irregularity that can cause different factors.

Blood Loss/Bleeding in Periods

An average loss of blood/ Bleeding during periods is 35mililiters with 10-80 ml considered normal.

Pain in Menstrual Cycle

During menses period female feel painful cramping in the abdomen, back or upper body portion in first days of cycle. Younger women feel severe pain in uterine called dysmenorrhea.
The word menstrual cycle is a scientific term that relates to physiological changes occurs in fertile female and other women primates. This all process is happening for sexual reproduction.

Phases or Process

This cycle is controlled by endocrine system of the body which is specifying for reproduction. It has three stages i.e. Follicular, Ovulation and luteal stage. Most often it misclassified using the uterine cycle that are secretory, proliferative and menstruation stages. Menstrual stage linked with first day of menstrual bleeding.

In first stage of follicular the amount of estrogen increases slowly, than bleeding becomes slow or stop and lining of uterus becomes thick.  Follicles become developing under the embrace of hormones and after some days some follicles becomes dominant. Near about mid of cycle i.e. 24-36 hours the dominant follicles start releasing egg or ovum after the luteinizing of Hormone surges.
This whole process refers to second stage known as Ovulation. These eggs cannot lives more than 24 hours without fertilization. Though body continue works and producing large amount of progesterone, the endometrium (known as uterine lining) starts preparing for possible implementation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy.

 The implantation period is approximately is for two weeks, if doesn’t implant than corpus luteum will become involutes and becomes reason sharp drops of both progesterone and estrogen in specific level.

Changes Occurs during periods

Female reproductive system becomes change as well as other system during menstrual cycle. Other system leads to breast tenderness or suddenly mood changes etc.

First Period

As we know the first period of women is known as menarche and according to expert it happen to 10-15 years girl. With mean of 12.5 year old girl in America, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in United Kingdom and 13.06 in Iceland. And the end phase is called menopause that happen near about 45-55 year of women, and if it happen before the age of 45 than it is considered premature most likely in industrial countries. This may cause by illness, surgery or medical treatment.

menses,menstrual cycle

The acceleration or delay in menarche is due to cultural factors, biological factors, health, and diet etc. different girls are found with different length of periods, some may get short or some got longer cycle.

Menstrual cycle is divided into different stages.

The common and average phase/stage is given below. First three changes are related to the lining of the uterus and rest of three chages is related to processes that happen in the ovary.

Name of phase

Average start day
assuming a 28-day cycle

Average end day

Average duration
number of days

Menstrual phase (Menstruation)




Proliferative phase (Some sources include Menstruation in this phase)




Ovulatory phase (Ovulation)




Luteal phase (also known as Secretory phase)




Ischemic phase




Proliferative phase




Hormonal regulation of menstrual cycle.

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